Posted by saformo on 8 diciembre 2012

With the reading of the three works, it comes clear what the concepts of utopia and dystopia are. In the case of the Communist Manifesto, the concept of utopia is associated with an ideal state, an state that only works with the cooperation of all parts of society, their Manifesto show the ideas that Plato earlier developed in what he called  Republic, his ideal state. The Communist Manifesto shows an optimistic development of society, we have to consider that The Communist Manifesto was written in 1847, in a timer were democracy was gaining power in western society, with the appearence of the Trade Unions and the formation of liberal parties.

Animal Farm was published in 1945, and Lord of the flies in 1954, only 100 years after the publication of The communist Manifesto. Orwell and Golding lived the rise of bolsheviks and they both participated directly in II World War, so it is not surprising they wanted to show a dystopian society, a society in decadence. In their respective works they both reflect a pessimistic world-view taking the form of satires and allegories. In Animal Farm and Lord of The flies, character reach their utopia, but they don´t show what is to live in a place where thing are better that they thought they can be, but what they show is what will happen if these utopian ideas were carried out to the extremes. In both works, characters were possesed by the desire to make life good, but when they reach their utopia, they find difficult to follow their ideas they had before the sucess of their utopia, and their search for happiness will end tremendly tragic, the remains of revolution will nor be any better than the situation of their previous life.

Since both men show a dark rather than optimistic future of society, their fiction has been refered as anti-utopian or dystopian novels. In Animal Farm their revolution starts with the exile of the human owner of the farm and an animalistic utopia based on the equality and effort of all members of the farm to carry out their ideal society, but as time goes by,  their utopian dream turns into a dystopian reality, with a totalitarian regime worse than the previous one governed by humans. Animals become a calque of their pervious regime; as pig´s power grows the class sytem imposes gradually, power will decide the way of life of each animal, betraying the commandments that ruled right after their revolution. The most significant aspect of this betrayal is the evolution of pigs, they start the revolution as the rest of animals but when they reach their purposes, pigs start to be the ones who govern over the rest of animales, they will manage and supervise the work of the other animals but they won´t work. As their power grows worse is their repression, they change the history of the farm in their own way to justify violence and tyranny. Pigs represent the unfulfillment of their utopic society, as time goes by, their actions resemble the action of humans and they adopt the habits and rutines that humans used to do, and at the end will not be possible to distinghuis betweem humans and pigs. George Orwell presents us the corruption that always comes with power,  the decadence of society who will always be condemned to be controlled physically and mentally for higher individuals.

In Lord of the flies, the dystopia comes out in a different way, in the novel the utopian dream cannot be fulfilled because it was a utopic vision under pressure, and it is under pressure where the intrinsic cruelty of man appears. This work shows us how a civilized nation turns into barbarity, a society withouth moral and ethic that inevitably will end into a horrifying  situation. At first they try to govern the island imitating the world of adult where they came from, but they soon get bored and children are carried along by the promeses of the other leader, Jack (as in Animal Farm, there is two leaders that fell into confrontations until one of them has to leave to safe his life) who controlled their mind and increases his power through festivities, hunting deeds and manipulation of truth. Ralph the other leader represented the moral of adults and Jack the dark internal behaviour of humans, the dystopian aspect is the moral evolution of characters, their actions show us that outside society, human nature is wicked and evil, so a society were there is equality of power between all members of society, as the society that describes The Communist Manifesto, will be imposible to carry out, as human nature is starving of power.